A computer network or data network is a telecommunications network which allows computers to exchange data. In computer networks, networked computing devices pass data to each other along network links (data connections). Data is transferred in the form of packets. The connections between nodes are established using either cable media or wireless media. The best-known computer network is the Internet. Network computer devices that originate, route and terminate the data are called network nodes. Nodes can include hosts such as personal computers, phones, servers as well as networking hardware. Two such devices are said to be networked together when one device is able to exchange information with the other device, whether or not they have a direct connection to each other. Computer networks differ in the transmission media used to carry their signals, the communications protocols to organize network traffic, the network’s size, topology and organizational intent. In most cases, communications protocols are layered on (i.e. work using) other more specific or more general communications protocols, except for the physical layer that directly deals with the transmission media. Computer networks support applications such as access to the World Wide Web, shared use of application and storage servers, printers, and fax machines, and use of email and instant messaging applications.

Identify a Scam

Identify a scam

How do I identify a scam message ?

The first 3 necessity for a person is food, shelter and clothing. But now internet is the 4th important necessity in people’s life. The usage of internet is widely used for seeking numbers to all kind of information. But the biggest disadvantage is that you might get caught by scam mails. The scam mailsare sent by the scam companies which are listed on the internet. Try avoiding this website which can be harmful for your computers. To avoid this kind of scam messages download a fee version of anti-scam software from the internet. These stop the scam mail to enter your inbox.

The scam companies can send you a message which has an interesting subject like how to avoid cancer? Or let say about earning money in 15 days. The most usual scams found are the Nigerian. These letters contains generally of transferring money. For example a person claimed to be a widower and asked to transfer money to your bank account. It is better if you don’t give them any personal information. You will never know when you will be bankrupt. These types of letters are otherwise known as 419 scams. How will you find out if the person is a scammer or not? Here are some points which will help you in identifying the scammer.

Clues :

– Scammer never uses his original name or any other personal identification.
– They always write in capital letter and write to you in formal method like referring you with Mr. or miss in each letter.
– There are always a friendless words like my dear or greeting to you in the letter.
– The body of the letter is mostly filled with financial term like lottery, funds etc.
– You can identify the scammer from their e-mail address.
– They register the e-mail address in a formal name for example This shows that they are fake address.

Some of the popular messages are listed below :

Gain lot of money by working from your place. There is no such company who allows you to work from your place. Another type of message is you have won a price from so and so company which you have never heard of. It is highly dangerous if you give your account data to a stranger. Never trust an unknown person who might offer you a job with higher salary. There are many companies who literally steal the money from you via internet. It is safer if you don’t open an unknown scam messages. There is a possibility of hacking your computer through these scam messages. So to stay on a safer side you can download free trial or buy the original anti-scam software which can block all the scam messages.


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whois – Internet domain name and network number directory service


whois [-adgprR] [-h host] name …


Whois looks up records in the databases maintained by several Network In-
formation Centers (NICs).

The options are as follows:

-a Use the American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) database.
It contains network numbers used in those parts of the world cov-
ered neither by APNIC nor by RIPE.

-d Use the US Department of Defense database. It contains points of
contact for subdomains of .MIL.

-g Use the US non-military federal government database, which con-
tains points of contact for subdomains of .GOV.

-h host
Use the specified host instead of the default NIC (whois.inter- Either a host name or an IP address may be specified.

-p Use the Asia/Pacific Network Information Center (APNIC) database.
It contains network numbers used in East Asia, Australia, New
Zealand, and the Pacific islands.

-r Use the R’eseaux IP Europ’eens (RIPE) database. It contains net-
work numbers and domain contact information for Europe.

-R Use the Russia Network Information Center (RIPN) database. It
contains network numbers and domain contact information for sub-
domains of .RU.

The operands specified to whois are concatenated together (separated by
white-space) and presented to the whois server.

The default action, unless directed otherwise with a special name, is to
do a very broad search, looking for matches to name in all types of
records and most fields (name, nicknames, hostname, net address, etc.) in
the database. For more information as to what name operands have special
meaning, and how to guide the search, use the special name « help ».


Ken Harrenstien, and Vic White, NICNAME/WHOIS, 1 March 1982, RFC 812.


The whois command appeared in 4.3BSD.


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Google SSL

Google SSL Search

With Google search over SSL, you can have an end-to-end encrypted search solution between your computer and Google. This secured channel helps protect your search terms and your search results pages from being intercepted by a third party. This provides you with a more secure and private search experience.

To use search over SSL, visit each time you perform a search. Note that only Google web search is available over SSL, so other search products like Google Images and Google Maps are not currently available over SSL. When you’re searching over SSL, these properties may not appear in the left panel.

What is SSL ?

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is a protocol that helps provide secure Internet communications for services like web browsing, e-mail, instant messaging, and other data transfers. When you search over SSL, your search queries and search traffic are encrypted so they can’t be read by any intermediary party such as employers and internet service providers (ISPs).

What can I expect from search over SSL ?

Here’s how searching over SSL is different from regular Google search:

SSL encrypts the communication channel between Google and a searcher’s computer. When search traffic is encrypted, it can’t be read by third parties trying to access the connection between a searcher’s computer and Google’s servers. Note that the SSL protocol does have some limitations — more details are below.As another layer of privacy, SSL search turns off a browser’s referrers . Web browsers typically turn off referrers when going from HTTPS to HTTP mode to provide extra privacy. By clicking on a search result that takes you to an HTTP site, you could disable any customizations that the website provides based on the referrer information. At this time, search over SSL is supported only on Google web search. We will continue to work to support other products like Images and Maps. All features that are not supported have been removed from the left panel and the row of links at the top. You’ll continue to see integrated results like images and maps, and clicking those results will take you out of encrypted search mode. Your Google experience using SSL search might be slighly slower than you’re used to because your computer needs to first establish a secure connection with Google.

Note that SSL search does not reduce the data that Google receives and logs when you search, or change the listing of these terms in your Web History .

Does SSL provide complete security ?

While SSL helps prevent intermediary parties, such as ISPs, from knowing the exact search that you typed, they could still know which websites you visit once you click on the search results. For example, when you search over SSL for [ flowers ], Google encrypts the query « flowers » and the results that Google returns. But when you click on a search result, including results like images and maps, you could be exiting the encrypted mode if the destination link is not on https://.

If your computer is infected with malware or a keylogger, a third party might still be able to see the queries that you typed. We recommend that everyone learns how to prevent and remove malware.Remember that only Google web search supports search over SSL, so searching Google Images, for example, will not be encrypted.

Technical discussion of SSL protocol-level limitations. While SSL is a clear privacy and security benefit, we are aware of some technical limitations to SSL at the protocol level that are not specific to Google’s implementation:

A determined, skilled malicious party could potentially interpose himself into the network traffic and present a spoofed certificate to the user. In many cases, this will result in a certificate warning to the user. If you see a certificate warning, the protection may not hold. An adversary with the ability to install root certificates on the machine could potentially interpose himself into the network traffic without any warnings appearing. A highly capable source may be in a position to sign certificates with a standard, pre-installed certificate authority (CA), which again would allow intercept without any apparent warnings to the user. Even if all web searching occurs over SSL, a passive traffic listener may still be able to observe DNS look-ups.

How can I confirm whether I’m on a secure connection ?

Check to see that the URL you’re on starts with https:// instead of http://. Most browsers provide a visual confirmation (such as an icon of a lock) in the address bar or in the status bar at the bottom of the page. On Google SSL search, you’ll also see a special Google SSL logo with a lock icon. In addition to this logo, be sure to also check the https:// text in the address bar and any browser lock icons.

When you perform a search on , you might see a warning if a page has some non-secure components: depending on your browser settings, you might see the lock icon turn into a warning sign, a pop-up message, or some other form of alert. This issue is often referred to as a « mixed mode error. »

Since this is a beta feature, there might be some rare cases in search over SSL that generate a mixed mode error. We’re working to prevent such errors, and you can help if you report any errors through our Help Forum.


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Iana Port List


(last updated 2008-05-12)

The port numbers are divided into three ranges: the Well Known Ports, the Registered Ports, and the Dynamic and/or Private Ports. The Well Known Ports are those from 0 through 1023. DCCP Well Known ports SHOULD NOT be used without IANA registration. The registration procedure is defined in [RFC4340], Section 19.9. The Registered Ports are those from 1024 through 49151 DCCP Registered ports SHOULD NOT be used without IANA registration. The registration procedure is defined in [RFC4340], Section 19.9. The Dynamic and/or Private Ports are those from 49152 through 65535 A value of 0 in the port numbers registry below indicates that no port has been allocated.

* *
* *
* *


The Well Known Ports are assigned by the IANA and on most systems can only be used by system (or root) processes or by programs executed by privileged users. Ports are used in the TCP [RFC793] to name the ends of logical connections which carry long term conversations. For the purpose of providing services to unknown callers, a service contact port is defined. This list specifies the port used by the server process as its contact port. The contact port is sometimes called the « well-known port ». To the extent possible, these same port assignments are used with the UDP [RFC768]. The range for assigned ports managed by the IANA is 0-1023.

Port Assignments:

Keyword Decimal Description References

0/tcp Reserved
0/udp Reserved
# Jon Postel
spr-itunes 0/tcp Shirt Pocket netTunes
spl-itunes 0/tcp Shirt Pocket launchTunes
# David Nanian 28 September 2007
tcpmux 1/tcp TCP Port Service Multiplexer
tcpmux 1/udp TCP Port Service Multiplexer
# Mark Lottor
compressnet 2/tcp Management Utility
compressnet 2/udp Management Utility
compressnet 3/tcp Compression Process
compressnet 3/udp Compression Process
# Bernie Volz
# 4/tcp Unassigned
# 4/udp Unassigned
rje 5/tcp Remote Job Entry
rje 5/udp Remote Job Entry
# Jon Postel
# 6/tcp Unassigned
# 6/udp Unassigned
echo 7/tcp Echo
echo 7/udp Echo
# Jon Postel
# 8/tcp Unassigned
# 8/udp Unassigned
discard 9/tcp Discard
discard 9/udp Discard
# Jon Postel
discard 9/sctp Discard
# Randall Stewart
# [RFC4960]
discard 9/dccp Discard SC:DISC
# IETF dccp WG, Eddie Kohler , [RFC4340]
# 10/tcp Unassigned
# 10/udp Unassigned
systat 11/tcp Active Users
systat 11/udp Active Users
# Jon Postel
# 12/tcp Unassigned
# 12/udp Unassigned
daytime 13/tcp Daytime (RFC 867)
daytime 13/udp Daytime (RFC 867)
# Jon Postel
# 14/tcp Unassigned
# 14/udp Unassigned
# 15/tcp Unassigned [was netstat]
# 15/udp Unassigned
# 16/tcp Unassigned
# 16/udp Unassigned
qotd 17/tcp Quote of the Day
qotd 17/udp Quote of the Day
# Jon Postel
msp 18/tcp Message Send Protocol
msp 18/udp Message Send Protocol
# Rina Nethaniel < ---none--->
chargen 19/tcp Character Generator
chargen 19/udp Character Generator
ftp-data 20/tcp File Transfer [Default Data]
ftp-data 20/udp File Transfer [Default Data]
# Jon Postel
ftp-data 20/sctp FTP
# Randall Stewart
# [RFC4960]
ftp 21/tcp File Transfer [Control]
ftp 21/udp File Transfer [Control]
# Jon Postel
ftp 21/sctp FTP
# Randall Stewart
# [RFC4960]
ssh 22/tcp SSH Remote Login Protocol
ssh 22/udp SSH Remote Login Protocol
# Tatu Ylonen
ssh 22/sctp SSH
# Randall Stewart
# [RFC4960]
telnet 23/tcp Telnet
telnet 23/udp Telnet
# Jon Postel
24/tcp any private mail system
24/udp any private mail system
# Rick Adams
smtp 25/tcp Simple Mail Transfer
smtp 25/udp Simple Mail Transfer
# Jon Postel
# 26/tcp Unassigned
# 26/udp Unassigned
nsw-fe 27/tcp NSW User System FE
nsw-fe 27/udp NSW User System FE
# Robert Thomas
# 28/tcp Unassigned
# 28/udp Unassigned
msg-icp 29/tcp MSG ICP
msg-icp 29/udp MSG ICP
# Robert Thomas
# 30/tcp Unassigned
# 30/udp Unassigned
msg-auth 31/tcp MSG Authentication
msg-auth 31/udp MSG Authentication
# Robert Thomas
# 32/tcp Unassigned
# 32/udp Unassigned
dsp 33/tcp Display Support Protocol
dsp 33/udp Display Support Protocol
# Ed Cain
# 34/tcp Unassigned
# 34/udp Unassigned
35/tcp any private printer server
35/udp any private printer server
# Jon Postel
# 36/tcp Unassigned
# 36/udp Unassigned
time 37/tcp Time
time 37/udp Time
# Jon Postel
rap 38/tcp Route Access Protocol
rap 38/udp Route Access Protocol
# Robert Ullmann
rlp 39/tcp Resource Location Protocol
rlp 39/udp Resource Location Protocol
# Mike Accetta
# 40/tcp Unassigned
# 40/udp Unassigned
graphics 41/tcp Graphics
graphics 41/udp Graphics
name 42/tcp Host Name Server
name 42/udp Host Name Server
nameserver 42/tcp Host Name Server
nameserver 42/udp Host Name Server
nicname 43/tcp Who Is
nicname 43/udp Who Is
mpm-flags 44/tcp MPM FLAGS Protocol
mpm-flags 44/udp MPM FLAGS Protocol
mpm 45/tcp Message Processing Module [recv]
mpm 45/udp Message Processing Module [recv]
mpm-snd 46/tcp MPM [default send]
mpm-snd 46/udp MPM [default send]
# Jon Postel
ni-ftp 47/tcp NI FTP
ni-ftp 47/udp NI FTP
# Steve Kille
auditd 48/tcp Digital Audit Daemon
auditd 48/udp Digital Audit Daemon
# Larry Scott
tacacs 49/tcp Login Host Protocol (TACACS)
tacacs 49/udp Login Host Protocol (TACACS)
# Pieter Ditmars
re-mail-ck 50/tcp Remote Mail Checking Protocol
re-mail-ck 50/udp Remote Mail Checking Protocol
# Steve Dorner
la-maint 51/tcp IMP Logical Address Maintenance
la-maint 51/udp IMP Logical Address Maintenance
# Andy Malis
xns-time 52/tcp XNS Time Protocol
xns-time 52/udp XNS Time Protocol
# Susie Armstrong
domain 53/tcp Domain Name Server
domain 53/udp Domain Name Server
# Paul Mockapetris
xns-ch 54/tcp XNS Clearinghouse
xns-ch 54/udp XNS Clearinghouse
# Susie Armstrong
isi-gl 55/tcp ISI Graphics Language
isi-gl 55/udp ISI Graphics Language
xns-auth 56/tcp XNS Authentication
xns-auth 56/udp XNS Authentication
# Susie Armstrong
57/tcp any private terminal access
57/udp any private terminal access
# Jon Postel
xns-mail 58/tcp XNS Mail
xns-mail 58/udp XNS Mail
# Susie Armstrong
59/tcp any private file service
59/udp any private file service
# Jon Postel
60/tcp Unassigned
60/udp Unassigned
ni-mail 61/tcp NI MAIL
ni-mail 61/udp NI MAIL
# Steve Kille
acas 62/tcp ACA Services
acas 62/udp ACA Services
# E. Wald
whois++ 63/tcp whois++
whois++ 63/udp whois++
# Rickard Schoultz
covia 64/tcp Communications Integrator (CI)
covia 64/udp Communications Integrator (CI)
# Dan Smith
tacacs-ds 65/tcp TACACS-Database Service
tacacs-ds 65/udp TACACS-Database Service
# Kathy Huber
sql*net 66/tcp Oracle SQL*NET
sql*net 66/udp Oracle SQL*NET
# Jack Haverty
bootps 67/tcp Bootstrap Protocol Server
bootps 67/udp Bootstrap Protocol Server
bootpc 68/tcp Bootstrap Protocol Client
bootpc 68/udp Bootstrap Protocol Client
# Bill Croft
tftp 69/tcp Trivial File Transfer
tftp 69/udp Trivial File Transfer
# David Clark
gopher 70/tcp Gopher
gopher 70/udp Gopher
# Mark McCahill
netrjs-1 71/tcp Remote Job Service
netrjs-1 71/udp Remote Job Service
netrjs-2 72/tcp Remote Job Service
netrjs-2 72/udp Remote Job Service
netrjs-3 73/tcp Remote Job Service
netrjs-3 73/udp Remote Job Service
netrjs-4 74/tcp Remote Job Service
netrjs-4 74/udp Remote Job Service
# Bob Braden
75/tcp any private dial out service
75/udp any private dial out service
# Jon Postel
deos 76/tcp Distributed External Object Store
deos 76/udp Distributed External Object Store
# Robert Ullmann
77/tcp any private RJE service
77/udp any private RJE service
# Jon Postel
vettcp 78/tcp vettcp
vettcp 78/udp vettcp
# Christopher Leong
finger 79/tcp Finger
finger 79/udp Finger
# David Zimmerman
http 80/tcp World Wide Web HTTP
http 80/udp World Wide Web HTTP
www 80/tcp World Wide Web HTTP
www 80/udp World Wide Web HTTP
www-http 80/tcp World Wide Web HTTP
www-http 80/udp World Wide Web HTTP
# Tim Berners-Lee
http 80/sctp HTTP
# Randall Stewart
# [RFC4960]
# 81 Unassigned (Removed on 2007-09-06)
xfer 82/tcp XFER Utility
xfer 82/udp XFER Utility
# Thomas M. Smith
mit-ml-dev 83/tcp MIT ML Device
mit-ml-dev 83/udp MIT ML Device
# David Reed < --none--->
ctf 84/tcp Common Trace Facility
ctf 84/udp Common Trace Facility
# Hugh Thomas
mit-ml-dev 85/tcp MIT ML Device
mit-ml-dev 85/udp MIT ML Device
# David Reed < --none--->
mfcobol 86/tcp Micro Focus Cobol
mfcobol 86/udp Micro Focus Cobol
# Simon Edwards < --none--->
87/tcp any private terminal link
87/udp any private terminal link
# Jon Postel
kerberos 88/tcp Kerberos
kerberos 88/udp Kerberos
# B. Clifford Neuman
su-mit-tg 89/tcp SU/MIT Telnet Gateway
su-mit-tg 89/udp SU/MIT Telnet Gateway
# Mark Crispin
########### PORT 90 also being used unofficially by Pointcast #########
dnsix 90/tcp DNSIX Securit Attribute Token Map
dnsix 90/udp DNSIX Securit Attribute Token Map
# Charles Watt
mit-dov 91/tcp MIT Dover Spooler
mit-dov 91/udp MIT Dover Spooler
# Eliot Moss
npp 92/tcp Network Printing Protocol
npp 92/udp Network Printing Protocol
# Louis Mamakos
dcp 93/tcp Device Control Protocol
dcp 93/udp Device Control Protocol
# Daniel Tappan
objcall 94/tcp Tivoli Object Dispatcher
objcall 94/udp Tivoli Object Dispatcher
# Tom Bereiter < --none--->
supdup 95/tcp SUPDUP
supdup 95/udp SUPDUP
# Mark Crispin
dixie 96/tcp DIXIE Protocol Specification
dixie 96/udp DIXIE Protocol Specification
# Tim Howes
swift-rvf 97/tcp Swift Remote Virtural File Protocol
swift-rvf 97/udp Swift Remote Virtural File Protocol
# Maurice R. Turcotte
tacnews 98/tcp TAC News
tacnews 98/udp TAC News
# Jon Postel
metagram 99/tcp Metagram Relay
metagram 99/udp Metagram Relay
# Geoff Goodfellow
newacct 100/tcp [unauthorized use]
hostname 101/tcp NIC Host Name Server
hostname 101/udp NIC Host Name Server
# Jon Postel
iso-tsap 102/tcp ISO-TSAP Class 0
iso-tsap 102/udp ISO-TSAP Class 0
# Marshall Rose
gppitnp 103/tcp Genesis Point-to-Point Trans Net
gppitnp 103/udp Genesis Point-to-Point Trans Net
acr-nema 104/tcp ACR-NEMA Digital Imag. & Comm. 300
acr-nema 104/udp ACR-NEMA Digital Imag. & Comm. 300
# Patrick McNamee < --none--->
cso 105/tcp CCSO name server protocol
cso 105/udp CCSO name server protocol
# Martin Hamilton
csnet-ns 105/tcp Mailbox Name Nameserver
csnet-ns 105/udp Mailbox Name Nameserver
# Marvin Solomon
3com-tsmux 106/tcp 3COM-TSMUX
3com-tsmux 106/udp 3COM-TSMUX
# Jeremy Siegel
########## 106 Unauthorized use by insecure poppassd protocol
rtelnet 107/tcp Remote Telnet Service
rtelnet 107/udp Remote Telnet Service
# Jon Postel
snagas 108/tcp SNA Gateway Access Server
snagas 108/udp SNA Gateway Access Server
# Kevin Murphy
pop2 109/tcp Post Office Protocol – Version 2
pop2 109/udp Post Office Protocol – Version 2
# Joyce K. Reynolds
pop3 110/tcp Post Office Protocol – Version 3
pop3 110/udp Post Office Protocol – Version 3
# Marshall Rose
sunrpc 111/tcp SUN Remote Procedure Call
sunrpc 111/udp SUN Remote Procedure Call
# Chuck McManis
mcidas 112/tcp McIDAS Data Transmission Protocol
mcidas 112/udp McIDAS Data Transmission Protocol
# Glenn Davis
ident 113/tcp
auth 113/tcp Authentication Service
auth 113/udp Authentication Service
# Mike St. Johns
# 114 Deprecated June 2004
sftp 115/tcp Simple File Transfer Protocol
sftp 115/udp Simple File Transfer Protocol
# Mark Lottor
ansanotify 116/tcp ANSA REX Notify
ansanotify 116/udp ANSA REX Notify
# Nicola J. Howarth
uucp-path 117/tcp UUCP Path Service
uucp-path 117/udp UUCP Path Service
sqlserv 118/tcp SQL Services
sqlserv 118/udp SQL Services
# Larry Barnes
nntp 119/tcp Network News Transfer Protocol
nntp 119/udp Network News Transfer Protocol
# Phil Lapsley
cfdptkt 120/tcp CFDPTKT
cfdptkt 120/udp CFDPTKT
# John Ioannidis
erpc 121/tcp Encore Expedited Remote Pro.Call
erpc 121/udp Encore Expedited Remote Pro.Call
# Jack O’Neil < ---none--->
smakynet 122/tcp SMAKYNET
smakynet 122/udp SMAKYNET
# Pierre Arnaud
ntp 123/tcp Network Time Protocol
ntp 123/udp Network Time Protocol
# Dave Mills
ansatrader 124/tcp ANSA REX Trader
ansatrader 124/udp ANSA REX Trader
# Nicola J. Howarth
locus-map 125/tcp Locus PC-Interface Net Map Ser
locus-map 125/udp Locus PC-Interface Net Map Ser
# Eric Peterson
nxedit 126/tcp NXEdit
nxedit 126/udp NXEdit
# Don Payette
###########Port 126 Previously assigned to application below#######
#unitary 126/tcp Unisys Unitary Login
#unitary 126/udp Unisys Unitary Login
###########Port 126 Previously assigned to application above#######
locus-con 127/tcp Locus PC-Interface Conn Server
locus-con 127/udp Locus PC-Interface Conn Server
# Eric Peterson
gss-xlicen 128/tcp GSS X License Verification
gss-xlicen 128/udp GSS X License Verification
# John Light
pwdgen 129/tcp Password Generator Protocol
pwdgen 129/udp Password Generator Protocol
# Frank J. Wacho
cisco-fna 130/tcp cisco FNATIVE
cisco-fna 130/udp cisco FNATIVE
cisco-tna 131/tcp cisco TNATIVE
cisco-tna 131/udp cisco TNATIVE
cisco-sys 132/tcp cisco SYSMAINT
cisco-sys 132/udp cisco SYSMAINT
statsrv 133/tcp Statistics Service
statsrv 133/udp Statistics Service
# Dave Mills
ingres-net 134/tcp INGRES-NET Service
ingres-net 134/udp INGRES-NET Service
# Mike Berrow < ---none--->
epmap 135/tcp DCE endpoint resolution
epmap 135/udp DCE endpoint resolution
# Joe Pato
profile 136/tcp PROFILE Naming System
profile 136/udp PROFILE Naming System
# Larry Peterson
netbios-ns 137/tcp NETBIOS Name Service
netbios-ns 137/udp NETBIOS Name Service
netbios-dgm 138/tcp NETBIOS Datagram Service
netbios-dgm 138/udp NETBIOS Datagram Service
netbios-ssn 139/tcp NETBIOS Session Service
netbios-ssn 139/udp NETBIOS Session Service
# Jon Postel
emfis-data 140/tcp EMFIS Data Service
emfis-data 140/udp EMFIS Data Service
emfis-cntl 141/tcp EMFIS Control Service
emfis-cntl 141/udp EMFIS Control Service
# Gerd Beling
bl-idm 142/tcp Britton-Lee IDM
bl-idm 142/udp Britton-Lee IDM
# Susie Snitzer < ---none--->
imap 143/tcp Internet Message Access Protocol
imap 143/udp Internet Message Access Protocol
# Mark Crispin
uma 144/tcp Universal Management Architecture
uma 144/udp Universal Management Architecture
# Jay Whitney
uaac 145/tcp UAAC Protocol
uaac 145/udp UAAC Protocol
# David A. Gomberg
iso-tp0 146/tcp ISO-IP0
iso-tp0 146/udp ISO-IP0
iso-ip 147/tcp ISO-IP
iso-ip 147/udp ISO-IP
# Marshall Rose
jargon 148/tcp Jargon
jargon 148/udp Jargon
# Bill Weinman
aed-512 149/tcp AED 512 Emulation Service
aed-512 149/udp AED 512 Emulation Service
# Albert G. Broscius
sql-net 150/tcp SQL-NET
sql-net 150/udp SQL-NET
# Martin Picard < <---none--->
hems 151/tcp HEMS
hems 151/udp HEMS
bftp 152/tcp Background File Transfer Program
bftp 152/udp Background File Transfer Program
# Annette DeSchon
sgmp 153/tcp SGMP
sgmp 153/udp SGMP
# Marty Schoffstahl
netsc-prod 154/tcp NETSC
netsc-prod 154/udp NETSC
netsc-dev 155/tcp NETSC
netsc-dev 155/udp NETSC
# Sergio Heker
sqlsrv 156/tcp SQL Service
sqlsrv 156/udp SQL Service
# Craig Rogers
knet-cmp 157/tcp KNET/VM Command/Message Protocol
knet-cmp 157/udp KNET/VM Command/Message Protocol
# Gary S. Malkin
pcmail-srv 158/tcp PCMail Server
pcmail-srv 158/udp PCMail Server
# Mark L. Lambert
nss-routing 159/tcp NSS-Routing
nss-routing 159/udp NSS-Routing
# Yakov Rekhter
sgmp-traps 160/tcp SGMP-TRAPS
sgmp-traps 160/udp SGMP-TRAPS
# Marty Schoffstahl
snmp 161/tcp SNMP
snmp 161/udp SNMP
snmptrap 162/tcp SNMPTRAP
snmptrap 162/udp SNMPTRAP
# Marshall Rose
cmip-man 163/tcp CMIP/TCP Manager
cmip-man 163/udp CMIP/TCP Manager
cmip-agent 164/tcp CMIP/TCP Agent
cmip-agent 164/udp CMIP/TCP Agent
# Amatzia Ben-Artzi < ---none--->
xns-courier 165/tcp Xerox
xns-courier 165/udp Xerox
# Susie Armstrong
s-net 166/tcp Sirius Systems
s-net 166/udp Sirius Systems
# Brian Lloyd
namp 167/tcp NAMP
namp 167/udp NAMP
# Marty Schoffstahl
rsvd 168/tcp RSVD
rsvd 168/udp RSVD
# Previous contact: Neil Todd
# Current contact: Alan Sandell 01 May 2008
send 169/tcp SEND
send 169/udp SEND
# William D. Wisner
print-srv 170/tcp Network PostScript
print-srv 170/udp Network PostScript
# Brian Reid
multiplex 171/tcp Network Innovations Multiplex
multiplex 171/udp Network Innovations Multiplex
cl/1 172/tcp Network Innovations CL/1
cl/1 172/udp Network Innovations CL/1
# Kevin DeVault < <---none--->
xyplex-mux 173/tcp Xyplex
xyplex-mux 173/udp Xyplex
# Bob Stewart
mailq 174/tcp MAILQ
mailq 174/udp MAILQ
# Rayan Zachariassen
vmnet 175/tcp VMNET
vmnet 175/udp VMNET
# Christopher Tengi
genrad-mux 176/tcp GENRAD-MUX
genrad-mux 176/udp GENRAD-MUX
# Ron Thornton
xdmcp 177/tcp X Display Manager Control Protocol
xdmcp 177/udp X Display Manager Control Protocol
# Robert W. Scheifler
nextstep 178/tcp NextStep Window Server
nextstep 178/udp NextStep Window Server
# Leo Hourvitz
bgp 179/tcp Border Gateway Protocol
bgp 179/udp Border Gateway Protocol
# Kirk Lougheed
bgp 179/sctp BGP
# Randall Stewart
# [RFC4960]
ris 180/tcp Intergraph
ris 180/udp Intergraph
# Dave Buehmann
unify 181/tcp Unify
unify 181/udp Unify
# Mark Ainsley
audit 182/tcp Unisys Audit SITP
audit 182/udp Unisys Audit SITP
# Gil Greenbaum
ocbinder 183/tcp OCBinder
ocbinder 183/udp OCBinder
ocserver 184/tcp OCServer
ocserver 184/udp OCServer
# Jerrilynn Okamura < --none--->
remote-kis 185/tcp Remote-KIS
remote-kis 185/udp Remote-KIS
kis 186/tcp KIS Protocol
kis 186/udp KIS Protocol
# Ralph Droms
aci 187/tcp Application Communication Interface
aci 187/udp Application Communication Interface
# Rick Carlos
mumps 188/tcp Plus Five’s MUMPS
mumps 188/udp Plus Five’s MUMPS
# Hokey Stenn
qft 189/tcp Queued File Transport
qft 189/udp Queued File Transport
# Wayne Schroeder
gacp 190/tcp Gateway Access Control Protocol
gacp 190/udp Gateway Access Control Protocol
# C. Philip Wood
prospero 191/tcp Prospero Directory Service
prospero 191/udp Prospero Directory Service
# B. Clifford Neuman
osu-nms 192/tcp OSU Network Monitoring System
osu-nms 192/udp OSU Network Monitoring System
# Doug Karl
srmp 193/tcp Spider Remote Monitoring Protocol
srmp 193/udp Spider Remote Monitoring Protocol
# Ted J. Socolofsky
irc 194/tcp Internet Relay Chat Protocol
irc 194/udp Internet Relay Chat Protocol
# Jarkko Oikarinen
dn6-nlm-aud 195/tcp DNSIX Network Level Module Audit
dn6-nlm-aud 195/udp DNSIX Network Level Module Audit
dn6-smm-red 196/tcp DNSIX Session Mgt Module Audit Redir
dn6-smm-red 196/udp DNSIX Session Mgt Module Audit Redir
# Lawrence Lebahn
dls 197/tcp Directory Location Service
dls 197/udp Directory Location Service
dls-mon 198/tcp Directory Location Service Monitor
dls-mon 198/udp Directory Location Service Monitor
# Scott Bellew
smux 199/tcp SMUX
smux 199/udp SMUX
# Marshall Rose
src 200/tcp IBM System Resource Controller
src 200/udp IBM System Resource Controller
# Gerald McBrearty < ---none--->
at-rtmp 201/tcp AppleTalk Routing Maintenance
at-rtmp 201/udp AppleTalk Routing Maintenance
at-nbp 202/tcp AppleTalk Name Binding
at-nbp 202/udp AppleTalk Name Binding
at-3 203/tcp AppleTalk Unused
at-3 203/udp AppleTalk Unused
at-echo 204/tcp AppleTalk Echo
at-echo 204/udp AppleTalk Echo
at-5 205/tcp AppleTalk Unused
at-5 205/udp AppleTalk Unused
at-zis 206/tcp AppleTalk Zone Information
at-zis 206/udp AppleTalk Zone Information
at-7 207/tcp AppleTalk Unused
at-7 207/udp AppleTalk Unused
at-8 208/tcp AppleTalk Unused
at-8 208/udp AppleTalk Unused
# Rob Chandhok
qmtp 209/tcp The Quick Mail Transfer Protocol
qmtp 209/udp The Quick Mail Transfer Protocol
# Dan Bernstein
z39.50 210/tcp ANSI Z39.50
z39.50 210/udp ANSI Z39.50
# Mark H. Needleman
914c/g 211/tcp Texas Instruments 914C/G Terminal
914c/g 211/udp Texas Instruments 914C/G Terminal
# Bill Harrell < ---none--->
anet 212/tcp ATEXSSTR
anet 212/udp ATEXSSTR
# Jim Taylor
ipx 213/tcp IPX
ipx 213/udp IPX
# Don Provan
vmpwscs 214/tcp VM PWSCS
vmpwscs 214/udp VM PWSCS
# Dan Shia
softpc 215/tcp Insignia Solutions
softpc 215/udp Insignia Solutions
# Martyn Thomas < ---none--->
CAIlic 216/tcp Computer Associates Int’l License Server
CAIlic 216/udp Computer Associates Int’l License Server
# Chuck Spitz
dbase 217/tcp dBASE Unix
dbase 217/udp dBASE Unix
# Don Gibson
mpp 218/tcp Netix Message Posting Protocol
mpp 218/udp Netix Message Posting Protocol
# Shannon Yeh
uarps 219/tcp Unisys ARPs
uarps 219/udp Unisys ARPs
# Ashok Marwaha < ---none--->
imap3 220/tcp Interactive Mail Access Protocol v3
imap3 220/udp Interactive Mail Access Protocol v3
# James Rice
fln-spx 221/tcp Berkeley rlogind with SPX auth
fln-spx 221/udp Berkeley rlogind with SPX auth
rsh-spx 222/tcp Berkeley rshd with SPX auth
rsh-spx 222/udp Berkeley rshd with SPX auth
cdc 223/tcp Certificate Distribution Center
cdc 223/udp Certificate Distribution Center
# Kannan Alagappan
########### Possible Conflict of Port 222 with « Masqdialer »##############
### Contact for Masqdialer is Charles Wright ###
masqdialer 224/tcp masqdialer
masqdialer 224/udp masqdialer
# Charles Wright
# 225-241 Reserved
# Jon Postel
direct 242/tcp Direct
direct 242/udp Direct
# Herb Sutter
sur-meas 243/tcp Survey Measurement
sur-meas 243/udp Survey Measurement
# Dave Clark
inbusiness 244/tcp inbusiness
inbusiness 244/udp inbusiness
# Derrick Hisatake
link 245/tcp LINK
link 245/udp LINK
dsp3270 246/tcp Display Systems Protocol
dsp3270 246/udp Display Systems Protocol
# Weldon J. Showalter
subntbcst_tftp 247/tcp SUBNTBCST_TFTP
subntbcst_tftp 247/udp SUBNTBCST_TFTP
# John Fake
bhfhs 248/tcp bhfhs
bhfhs 248/udp bhfhs
# John Kelly
# 249-255 Reserved
# Jon Postel
rap 256/tcp RAP
rap 256/udp RAP
# J.S. Greenfield
set 257/tcp Secure Electronic Transaction
set 257/udp Secure Electronic Transaction
# Donald Eastlake
# 258 Unassigned (Removed 2006-09-13)
esro-gen 259/tcp Efficient Short Remote Operations
esro-gen 259/udp Efficient Short Remote Operations
# Mohsen Banan
openport 260/tcp Openport
openport 260/udp Openport
# John Marland
nsiiops 261/tcp IIOP Name Service over TLS/SSL
nsiiops 261/udp IIOP Name Service over TLS/SSL
# Jeff Stewart
arcisdms 262/tcp Arcisdms
arcisdms 262/udp Arcisdms
# Russell Crook (rmc&>
hdap 263/tcp HDAP
hdap 263/udp HDAP
# Troy Gau
bgmp 264/tcp BGMP
bgmp 264/udp BGMP
# Dave Thaler
x-bone-ctl 265/tcp X-Bone CTL
x-bone-ctl 265/udp X-Bone CTL
# Joe Touch
sst 266/tcp SCSI on ST
sst 266/udp SCSI on ST
# Donald D. Woelz
td-service 267/tcp Tobit David Service Layer
td-service 267/udp Tobit David Service Layer
td-replica 268/tcp Tobit David Replica
td-replica 268/udp Tobit David Replica
# Franz-Josef Leuders
manet 269/tcp MANET Protocols
manet 269/udp MANET Protocols [RFC-ietf-manet-iana-07.txt]
# 270-279 Unassigned
http-mgmt 280/tcp http-mgmt
http-mgmt 280/udp http-mgmt
# Adrian Pell
personal-link 281/tcp Personal Link
personal-link 281/udp Personal Link
# Dan Cummings
cableport-ax 282/tcp Cable Port A/X
cableport-ax 282/udp Cable Port A/X
# Craig Langfahl
rescap 283/tcp rescap
rescap 283/udp rescap
# Paul Hoffman
corerjd 284/tcp corerjd
corerjd 284/udp corerjd
# Chris Thornhill
# 285 Unassigned
fxp 286/tcp FXP Communication
fxp 286/udp FXP Communication
# James Darnall
k-block 287/tcp K-BLOCK
k-block 287/udp K-BLOCK
# Simon P Jackson
# 288-307 Unassigned
novastorbakcup 308/tcp Novastor Backup
novastorbakcup 308/udp Novastor Backup
# Brian Dickman
entrusttime 309/tcp EntrustTime
entrusttime 309/udp EntrustTime
# Peter Whittaker
bhmds 310/tcp bhmds
bhmds 310/udp bhmds
# John Kelly
asip-webadmin 311/tcp AppleShare IP WebAdmin
asip-webadmin 311/udp AppleShare IP WebAdmin
# Ann Huang
vslmp 312/tcp VSLMP
vslmp 312/udp VSLMP
# Gerben Wierda
magenta-logic 313/tcp Magenta Logic
magenta-logic 313/udp Magenta Logic
# Karl Rousseau
opalis-robot 314/tcp Opalis Robot
opalis-robot 314/udp Opalis Robot
# Laurent Domenech, Opalis
dpsi 315/tcp DPSI
dpsi 315/udp DPSI
# Tony Scamurra
decauth 316/tcp decAuth
decauth 316/udp decAuth
# Michael Agishtein
zannet 317/tcp Zannet
zannet 317/udp Zannet
# Zan Oliphant
pkix-timestamp 318/tcp PKIX TimeStamp
pkix-timestamp 318/udp PKIX TimeStamp
# Robert Zuccherato
ptp-event 319/tcp PTP Event
ptp-event 319/udp PTP Event
ptp-general 320/tcp PTP General
ptp-general 320/udp PTP General
# John Eidson
pip 321/tcp PIP
pip 321/udp PIP
# Gordon Mohr
rtsps 322/tcp RTSPS
rtsps 322/udp RTSPS
# Anders Klemets
# 323-332 Unassigned
texar 333/tcp Texar Security Port
texar 333/udp Texar Security Port
# Eugen Bacic
# 334-343 Unassigned
pdap 344/tcp Prospero Data Access Protocol
pdap 344/udp Prospero Data Access Protocol
# B. Clifford Neuman
pawserv 345/tcp Perf Analysis Workbench
pawserv 345/udp Perf Analysis Workbench
zserv 346/tcp Zebra server
zserv 346/udp Zebra server
fatserv 347/tcp Fatmen Server
fatserv 347/udp Fatmen Server
csi-sgwp 348/tcp Cabletron Management Protocol
csi-sgwp 348/udp Cabletron Management Protocol
mftp 349/tcp mftp
mftp 349/udp mftp
# Dave Feinleib
matip-type-a 350/tcp MATIP Type A
matip-type-a 350/udp MATIP Type A
matip-type-b 351/tcp MATIP Type B
matip-type-b 351/udp MATIP Type B
# Alain Robert
# The following entry records an unassigned but widespread use
bhoetty 351/tcp bhoetty (added 5/21/97)
bhoetty 351/udp bhoetty
# John Kelly
dtag-ste-sb 352/tcp DTAG (assigned long ago)
dtag-ste-sb 352/udp DTAG
# Ruediger Wald
# The following entry records an unassigned but widespread use
bhoedap4 352/tcp bhoedap4 (added 5/21/97)
bhoedap4 352/udp bhoedap4
# John Kelly
ndsauth 353/tcp NDSAUTH
ndsauth 353/udp NDSAUTH
# Jayakumar Ramalingam
bh611 354/tcp bh611
bh611 354/udp bh611
# John Kelly
datex-asn 355/tcp DATEX-ASN
datex-asn 355/udp DATEX-ASN
# Kenneth Vaughn
cloanto-net-1 356/tcp Cloanto Net 1
cloanto-net-1 356/udp Cloanto Net 1
# Michael Battilana
bhevent 357/tcp bhevent
bhevent 357/udp bhevent
# John Kelly
shrinkwrap 358/tcp Shrinkwrap
shrinkwrap 358/udp Shrinkwrap
# Bill Simpson
nsrmp 359/tcp Network Security Risk Management Protocol
nsrmp 359/udp Network Security Risk Management Protocol
# Eric Jacksch
scoi2odialog 360/tcp scoi2odialog
scoi2odialog 360/udp scoi2odialog
# Keith Petley
semantix 361/tcp Semantix
semantix 361/udp Semantix
# Semantix
srssend 362/tcp SRS Send
srssend 362/udp SRS Send
# Curt Mayer
rsvp_tunnel 363/tcp RSVP Tunnel
rsvp_tunnel 363/udp RSVP Tunnel
# Andreas Terzis
aurora-cmgr 364/tcp Aurora CMGR
aurora-cmgr 364/udp Aurora CMGR
# Philip Budne
dtk 365/tcp DTK
dtk 365/udp DTK
# Fred Cohen
odmr 366/tcp ODMR
odmr 366/udp ODMR
# Randall Gellens
mortgageware 367/tcp MortgageWare
mortgageware 367/udp MortgageWare
# Ole Hellevik
qbikgdp 368/tcp QbikGDP
qbikgdp 368/udp QbikGDP
# Adrien de Croy
rpc2portmap 369/tcp rpc2portmap
rpc2portmap 369/udp rpc2portmap
codaauth2 370/tcp codaauth2
codaauth2 370/udp codaauth2
# Robert Watson
clearcase 371/tcp Clearcase
clearcase 371/udp Clearcase
# Dave LeBlang
ulistproc 372/tcp ListProcessor
ulistproc 372/udp ListProcessor
# Anastasios Kotsikonas
legent-1 373/tcp Legent Corporation
legent-1 373/udp Legent Corporation
legent-2 374/tcp Legent Corporation
legent-2 374/udp Legent Corporation
# Keith Boyce < ---none--->
hassle 375/tcp Hassle
hassle 375/udp Hassle
# Reinhard Doelz
nip 376/tcp Amiga Envoy Network Inquiry Proto
nip 376/udp Amiga Envoy Network Inquiry Proto
# Heinz Wrobel
tnETOS 377/tcp NEC Corporation
tnETOS 377/udp NEC Corporation
dsETOS 378/tcp NEC Corporation
dsETOS 378/udp NEC Corporation
# Tomoo Fujita
is99c 379/tcp TIA/EIA/IS-99 modem client
is99c 379/udp TIA/EIA/IS-99 modem client
is99s 380/tcp TIA/EIA/IS-99 modem server
is99s 380/udp TIA/EIA/IS-99 modem server
# Frank Quick
hp-collector 381/tcp hp performance data collector
hp-collector 381/udp hp performance data collector
hp-managed-node 382/tcp hp performance data managed node
hp-managed-node 382/udp hp performance data managed node
hp-alarm-mgr 383/tcp hp performance data alarm manager
hp-alarm-mgr 383/udp hp performance data alarm manager
# Frank Blakely
arns 384/tcp A Remote Network Server System
arns 384/udp A Remote Network Server System
# David Hornsby
ibm-app 385/tcp IBM Application
ibm-app 385/udp IBM Application
# Lisa Tomita < ---none--->
asa 386/tcp ASA Message Router Object Def.
asa 386/udp ASA Message Router Object Def.
# Steve Laitinen
aurp 387/tcp Appletalk Update-Based Routing Pro.
aurp 387/udp Appletalk Update-Based Routing Pro.
# Chris Ranch
unidata-ldm 388/tcp Unidata LDM
unidata-ldm 388/udp Unidata LDM
# Glenn Davis
ldap 389/tcp Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
ldap 389/udp Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
# Tim Howes
uis 390/tcp UIS
uis 390/udp UIS
# Ed Barron < ---none--->
synotics-relay 391/tcp SynOptics SNMP Relay Port
synotics-relay 391/udp SynOptics SNMP Relay Port
synotics-broker 392/tcp SynOptics Port Broker Port
synotics-broker 392/udp SynOptics Port Broker Port
# Illan Raab
meta5 393/tcp Meta5
meta5 393/udp Meta5
# Jim Kanzler
embl-ndt 394/tcp EMBL Nucleic Data Transfer
embl-ndt 394/udp EMBL Nucleic Data Transfer
# Peter Gad
netcp 395/tcp NETscout Control Protocol
netcp 395/udp NETscout Control Protocol
# Anil Singhal < ---none--->
netware-ip 396/tcp Novell Netware over IP
netware-ip 396/udp Novell Netware over IP
mptn 397/tcp Multi Protocol Trans. Net.
mptn 397/udp Multi Protocol Trans. Net.
# Soumitra Sarkar
kryptolan 398/tcp Kryptolan
kryptolan 398/udp Kryptolan
# Peter de Laval
iso-tsap-c2 399/tcp ISO Transport Class 2 Non-Control over TCP
iso-tsap-c2 399/udp ISO Transport Class 2 Non-Control over UDP
# Yanick Pouffary
work-sol 400/tcp Workstation Solutions
work-sol 400/udp Workstation Solutions
# Jim Ward
ups 401/tcp Uninterruptible Power Supply
ups 401/udp Uninterruptible Power Supply
# Charles Bennett
genie 402/tcp Genie Protocol
genie 402/udp Genie Protocol
# Mark Hankin < ---none--->
decap 403/tcp decap
decap 403/udp decap
nced 404/tcp nced
nced 404/udp nced
ncld 405/tcp ncld
ncld 405/udp ncld
# Richard Jones < ---none--->
imsp 406/tcp Interactive Mail Support Protocol
imsp 406/udp Interactive Mail Support Protocol
# John Myers
timbuktu 407/tcp Timbuktu
timbuktu 407/udp Timbuktu
# Marc Epard
prm-sm 408/tcp Prospero Resource Manager Sys. Man.
prm-sm 408/udp Prospero Resource Manager Sys. Man.
prm-nm 409/tcp Prospero Resource Manager Node Man.
prm-nm 409/udp Prospero Resource Manager Node Man.
# B. Clifford Neuman
decladebug 410/tcp DECLadebug Remote Debug Protocol
decladebug 410/udp DECLadebug Remote Debug Protocol
# Anthony Berent
rmt 411/tcp Remote MT Protocol
rmt 411/udp Remote MT Protocol
# Peter Eriksson
synoptics-trap 412/tcp Trap Convention Port
synoptics-trap 412/udp Trap Convention Port
# Illan Raab
smsp 413/tcp Storage Management Services Protocol
smsp 413/udp Storage Management Services Protocol
# Murthy Srinivas
infoseek 414/tcp InfoSeek
infoseek 414/udp InfoSeek
# Steve Kirsch
bnet 415/tcp BNet
bnet 415/udp BNet
# Jim Mertz
silverplatter 416/tcp Silverplatter
silverplatter 416/udp Silverplatter
# Peter Ciuffetti
onmux 417/tcp Onmux
onmux 417/udp Onmux
# Stephen Hanna
hyper-g 418/tcp Hyper-G
hyper-g 418/udp Hyper-G
# Frank Kappe
ariel1 419/tcp Ariel 1
ariel1 419/udp Ariel 1
# Joel Karafin
smpte 420/tcp SMPTE
smpte 420/udp SMPTE
# Si Becker <71362.22&CompuServe.COM>
ariel2 421/tcp Ariel 2
ariel2 421/udp Ariel 2
ariel3 422/tcp Ariel 3
ariel3 422/udp Ariel 3
# Joel Karafin
opc-job-start 423/tcp IBM Operations Planning and Control Start
opc-job-start 423/udp IBM Operations Planning and Control Start
opc-job-track 424/tcp IBM Operations Planning and Control Track
opc-job-track 424/udp IBM Operations Planning and Control Track
# Conny Larsson
icad-el 425/tcp ICAD
icad-el 425/udp ICAD
# Larry Stone
smartsdp 426/tcp smartsdp
smartsdp 426/udp smartsdp
# Marie-Pierre Belanger
svrloc 427/tcp Server Location
svrloc 427/udp Server Location
ocs_cmu 428/tcp OCS_CMU
ocs_cmu 428/udp OCS_CMU
ocs_amu 429/tcp OCS_AMU
ocs_amu 429/udp OCS_AMU
# Florence Wyman
utmpsd 430/tcp UTMPSD
utmpsd 430/udp UTMPSD
utmpcd 431/tcp UTMPCD
utmpcd 431/udp UTMPCD
iasd 432/tcp IASD
iasd 432/udp IASD
# Nir Baroz
nnsp 433/tcp NNSP
nnsp 433/udp NNSP
# Rob Robertson
mobileip-agent 434/tcp MobileIP-Agent
mobileip-agent 434/udp MobileIP-Agent
mobilip-mn 435/tcp MobilIP-MN
mobilip-mn 435/udp MobilIP-MN
# Kannan Alagappan
dna-cml 436/tcp DNA-CML
dna-cml 436/udp DNA-CML
# Dan Flowers
comscm 437/tcp comscm
comscm 437/udp comscm
# Jim Teague
dsfgw 438/tcp dsfgw
dsfgw 438/udp dsfgw
# Andy McKeen
dasp 439/tcp dasp Thomas Obermair
dasp 439/udp dasp tommy&
# Thomas Obermair
sgcp 440/tcp sgcp
sgcp 440/udp sgcp
# Marshall Rose
decvms-sysmgt 441/tcp decvms-sysmgt
decvms-sysmgt 441/udp decvms-sysmgt
# Lee Barton
cvc_hostd 442/tcp cvc_hostd
cvc_hostd 442/udp cvc_hostd
# Bill Davidson
https 443/tcp http protocol over TLS/SSL
https 443/udp http protocol over TLS/SSL
# Kipp E.B. Hickman
https 443/sctp HTTPS
# Randall Stewart
# [RFC4960]
snpp 444/tcp Simple Network Paging Protocol
snpp 444/udp Simple Network Paging Protocol
# [RFC1568]
microsoft-ds 445/tcp Microsoft-DS
microsoft-ds 445/udp Microsoft-DS
# Pradeep Bahl
ddm-rdb 446/tcp DDM-Remote Relational Database Access
ddm-rdb 446/udp DDM-Remote Relational Database Access
ddm-dfm 447/tcp DDM-Distributed File Management
ddm-dfm 447/udp DDM-Distributed File Management
# Steven Ritland
ddm-ssl 448/tcp DDM-Remote DB Access Using Secure Sockets
ddm-ssl 448/udp DDM-Remote DB Access Using Secure Sockets
# Steven Ritland
as-servermap 449/tcp AS Server Mapper
as-servermap 449/udp AS Server Mapper
# Barbara Foss
tserver 450/tcp Computer Supported Telecomunication Applications
tserver 450/udp Computer Supported Telecomunication Applications
# Harvey S. Schultz
sfs-smp-net 451/tcp Cray Network Semaphore server
sfs-smp-net 451/udp Cray Network Semaphore server
sfs-config 452/tcp Cray SFS config server
sfs-config 452/udp Cray SFS config server
# Walter Poxon
creativeserver 453/tcp CreativeServer
creativeserver 453/udp CreativeServer
contentserver 454/tcp ContentServer
contentserver 454/udp ContentServer
creativepartnr 455/tcp CreativePartnr
creativepartnr 455/udp CreativePartnr
# Jesus Ortiz
macon-tcp 456/tcp macon-tcp
macon-udp 456/udp macon-udp
# Yoshinobu Inoue
scohelp 457/tcp scohelp
scohelp 457/udp scohelp
# Faith Zack
appleqtc 458/tcp apple quick time
appleqtc 458/udp apple quick time
# Murali Ranganathan
ampr-rcmd 459/tcp ampr-rcmd
ampr-rcmd 459/udp ampr-rcmd
# Rob Janssen
skronk 460/tcp skronk
skronk 460/udp skronk
# Henry Strickland
datasurfsrv 461/tcp DataRampSrv
datasurfsrv 461/udp DataRampSrv
datasurfsrvsec 462/tcp DataRampSrvSec
datasurfsrvsec 462/udp DataRampSrvSec
# Diane Downie
alpes 463/tcp alpes
alpes 463/udp alpes
# Alain Durand
kpasswd 464/tcp kpasswd
kpasswd 464/udp kpasswd
# Theodore Ts’o
urd 465/tcp URL Rendesvous Directory for SSM
igmpv3lite 465/udp IGMP over UDP for SSM
# Toerless Eckert
digital-vrc 466/tcp digital-vrc
digital-vrc 466/udp digital-vrc
# Peter Higginson
mylex-mapd 467/tcp mylex-mapd
mylex-mapd 467/udp mylex-mapd
# Gary Lewis
photuris 468/tcp proturis
photuris 468/udp proturis
# Bill Simpson
rcp 469/tcp Radio Control Protocol
rcp 469/udp Radio Control Protocol
# Jim Jennings +1-708-538-7241
scx-proxy 470/tcp scx-proxy
scx-proxy 470/udp scx-proxy
# Scott Narveson
mondex 471/tcp Mondex
mondex 471/udp Mondex
# Bill Reding
ljk-login 472/tcp ljk-login
ljk-login 472/udp ljk-login
# LJK Software, Cambridge, Massachusetts
hybrid-pop 473/tcp hybrid-pop
hybrid-pop 473/udp hybrid-pop
# Rami Rubin
tn-tl-w1 474/tcp tn-tl-w1
tn-tl-w2 474/udp tn-tl-w2
# Ed Kress
tcpnethaspsrv 475/tcp tcpnethaspsrv
tcpnethaspsrv 475/udp tcpnethaspsrv
# Charlie Hava
tn-tl-fd1 476/tcp tn-tl-fd1
tn-tl-fd1 476/udp tn-tl-fd1
# Ed Kress
ss7ns 477/tcp ss7ns
ss7ns 477/udp ss7ns
# Jean-Michel URSCH
spsc 478/tcp spsc
spsc 478/udp spsc
# Mike Rieker
iafserver 479/tcp iafserver
iafserver 479/udp iafserver
iafdbase 480/tcp iafdbase
iafdbase 480/udp iafdbase
# ricky&
ph 481/tcp Ph service
ph 481/udp Ph service
# Roland Hedberg
bgs-nsi 482/tcp bgs-nsi
bgs-nsi 482/udp bgs-nsi
# Jon Saperia
ulpnet 483/tcp ulpnet
ulpnet 483/udp ulpnet
# Kevin Mooney
integra-sme 484/tcp Integra Software Management Environment
integra-sme 484/udp Integra Software Management Environment
# Randall Dow
powerburst 485/tcp Air Soft Power Burst
powerburst 485/udp Air Soft Power Burst
avian 486/tcp avian
avian 486/udp avian
# Robert Ullmann
saft 487/tcp saft Simple Asynchronous File Transfe


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Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line


ADSL has the distinguishing characteristic that the data can flow faster in one direction than the other, i.e., asymmetrically. Providers usually market ADSL as a service for people to connect to the Internet in a relatively passive mode: able to use the higher speed direction for the « download » from the Internet but not needing to run servers that would require bandwidth in the other direction.

For conventional ADSL, downstream rates start at 256 kbit/s and typically reach 8 Mbit/s within 1.5 km (5000 ft) of the DSLAM equipped central office or remote terminal. Upstream rates start at 64 kbit/s and typically reach 256 kbit/s but can go as high as 1024 kbit/s. The name ADSL Lite is sometimes used for the slower versions.

Note that distances are only approximations. Signal attenuation and Signal to Noise Ratio are defining characteristics, and can vary completely independently of distance (eg. non-copper cabling, cable diameter).

A newer variant called ADSL2 provides higher downstream rates of up to 12 Mbit/s for spans of less than 2.5 kilometers (8000 feet). Higher symbol rates and more advanced noise shaping are responsible for these increased speeds. ADSL2+, also referred to as ITU G.992.5, boosts these rates to up to 25 Mbit/s for spans of less than 1.5 kilometers (5000 feet). ADSL2+ also offers seamless bonding options, allowing lines with higher attenuation or lower signal to noise (SNR) ratios to be bonded together to achieve theoretically the sum total of the number of lines (i.e. up to 50Mbit/s for two lines, etc), as well as options in power management and seamless rate adaption – changing the data rate used without requiring to resynchronise.

Because of the relatively low data-rate (compared to optical backbone networks) ATM is an appropriate technology for multiplexing time-critical data such as digital voice with less time-critical data such as web traffic; ATM runs widely over ADSL technology to ensure that this remains a possibility.

ADSL service providers may offer either static or dynamic IP addressing. Static addressing is preferable for people who may wish to connect to their office via a virtual private network, for some Internet gaming, and for those wishing to use ADSL to connect a Web server.

How ADSL works

On the wire

ADSL uses two separate frequency bands. With standard ADSL, the band from 25.875 kHz to 138 kHz is used for upstream communication, while 138 kHz – 1104 kHz is used for downstream communication. It is, however, possible to alter this frequency division, but it will cause issues with crosstalk.

Frequency plan for ADSL

Each of these is further divided into smaller chunks of 4.3125 kHz. During initial training, the ADSL modem tests which of the available chunks have an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio. The distance from the telephone exchange, or noise on the copper wire, may introduce errors on some frequencies. By keeping the chunks small, an error on one frequency thus need not render the line unusable: the chunk will not be used, resulting in reduced throughput on the ADSL connection.There is a direct relationship between the number of chunks available and the throughput capacity of the ADSL connection. The exact data capacity per chunk depends on the modulation method used.

ADSL can use any of a variety of modulation techniques, CAP was the de facto standard for xDSL deployments up until 1996, deployed in 90 percent of xDSL installs. Now it is deprecated in favour of DMT/OFDM modulation schemes.OFDM is used in ADSL connections that follow the G.DMT (ITU G.922.1) standard. (Annex A refers to ADSL-over-POTS).It is worth noting that in contrast to the modulation schemes that baseband technologies like Gigabit Ethernet use, ADSL uses primarily analog modulation schemes, so the ‘D’ in ADSL is a misnomer — ADSL is simply a very fast analog connection (using PPPoE or PPPoA) with much higher symbol rates and much faster handshaking between modems.

ADSL standards

Additionally, the non-Annex ADSL2 and ADSL2+ support an extra 256 kbit/s of upstream if the bandwidth normally used for POTS voice calls is allocated for ADSL usage.The downstream and upstream rates displayed are theoretical maximums. Note also that because DSLAM and ADSL modems may have been implemented based on differing or incomplete standards some manufacturers may advertise different speeds. For example, Ericsson has several devices that support non-standard upstream speeds of up to 2 Mbit/s in ADSL2 and ADSL2+


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