EVP digest


EVP_MD_CTX_init, EVP_MD_CTX_create, EVP_DigestInit_ex, EVP_DigestUp-
date, EVP_DigestFinal_ex, EVP_MD_CTX_cleanup, EVP_MD_CTX_destroy,
EVP_MD_pkey_type, EVP_MD_size, EVP_MD_block_size, EVP_MD_CTX_md,
EVP_MD_CTX_size, EVP_MD_CTX_block_size, EVP_MD_CTX_type, EVP_md_null,
EVP_md2, EVP_md5, EVP_sha, EVP_sha1, EVP_dss, EVP_dss1, EVP_mdc2,
EVP_ripemd160, EVP_get_digestbyname, EVP_get_digestbynid,
EVP_get_digestbyobj – EVP digest routines


#include (openssl/evp.h)

void EVP_MD_CTX_init(EVP_MD_CTX *ctx);
EVP_MD_CTX *EVP_MD_CTX_create(void);

int EVP_DigestInit_ex(EVP_MD_CTX *ctx, const EVP_MD *type, ENGINE *impl);
int EVP_DigestUpdate(EVP_MD_CTX *ctx, const void *d, unsigned int cnt);
int EVP_DigestFinal_ex(EVP_MD_CTX *ctx, unsigned char *md,
unsigned int *s);

int EVP_MD_CTX_cleanup(EVP_MD_CTX *ctx);
void EVP_MD_CTX_destroy(EVP_MD_CTX *ctx);

int EVP_MD_CTX_copy_ex(EVP_MD_CTX *out,const EVP_MD_CTX *in);

int EVP_DigestInit(EVP_MD_CTX *ctx, const EVP_MD *type);
int EVP_DigestFinal(EVP_MD_CTX *ctx, unsigned char *md,
unsigned int *s);

int EVP_MD_CTX_copy(EVP_MD_CTX *out,EVP_MD_CTX *in);

#define EVP_MAX_MD_SIZE (16+20) /* The SSLv3 md5+sha1 type */

#define EVP_MD_type(e) ((e)->type)
#define EVP_MD_pkey_type(e) ((e)->pkey_type)
#define EVP_MD_size(e) ((e)->md_size)
#define EVP_MD_block_size(e) ((e)->block_size)

#define EVP_MD_CTX_md(e) (e)->digest)
#define EVP_MD_CTX_size(e) EVP_MD_size((e)->digest)
#define EVP_MD_CTX_block_size(e) EVP_MD_block_size((e)->digest)
#define EVP_MD_CTX_type(e) EVP_MD_type((e)->digest)

const EVP_MD *EVP_md_null(void);
const EVP_MD *EVP_md2(void);
const EVP_MD *EVP_md5(void);
const EVP_MD *EVP_sha(void);
const EVP_MD *EVP_sha1(void);
const EVP_MD *EVP_dss(void);
const EVP_MD *EVP_dss1(void);
const EVP_MD *EVP_mdc2(void);
const EVP_MD *EVP_ripemd160(void);

const EVP_MD *EVP_get_digestbyname(const char *name);
#define EVP_get_digestbynid(a) EVP_get_digestbyname(OBJ_nid2sn(a))
#define EVP_get_digestbyobj(a) EVP_get_digestbynid(OBJ_obj2nid(a))


The EVP digest routines are a high level interface to message digests.

EVP_MD_CTX_init() initializes digest contet ctx.

EVP_MD_CTX_create() allocates, initializes and returns a digest contet.

EVP_DigestInit_ex() sets up digest context ctx to use a digest type
from ENGINE impl. ctx must be initialized before calling this function.
type will typically be supplied by a functionsuch as EVP_sha1(). If
impl is NULL then the default implementation of digest type is used.

EVP_DigestUpdate() hashes cnt bytes of data at d into the digest con-
text ctx. This function can be called several times on the same ctx to
hash additional data.

EVP_DigestFinal_ex() retrieves the digest value from ctx and places it
in md. If the s parameter is not NULL then the number of bytes of data
written (i.e. the length of the digest) will be written to the integer
at s, at most EVP_MAX_MD_SIZE bytes will be written. After calling
EVP_DigestFinal_ex() no additional calls to EVP_DigestUpdate() can be
made, but EVP_DigestInit_ex() can be called to initialize a new digest

EVP_MD_CTX_cleanup() cleans up digest context ctx, it should be called
after a digest context is no longer needed.

EVP_MD_CTX_destroy() cleans up digest context ctx and frees up the
space allocated to it, it should be called only on a context created
using EVP_MD_CTX_create().

EVP_MD_CTX_copy_ex() can be used to copy the message digest state from
in to out. This is useful if large amounts of data are to be hashed
which only differ in the last few bytes. out must be initialized before
calling this function.

EVP_DigestInit() behaves in the same way as EVP_DigestInit_ex() except
the passed context ctx does not have to be initialized, and it always
uses the default digest implementation.

EVP_DigestFinal() is similar to EVP_DigestFinal_ex() except the digest
contet ctx is automatically cleaned up.

EVP_MD_CTX_copy() is similar to EVP_MD_CTX_copy_ex() except the desti-
nation out does not have to be initialized.

EVP_MD_size() and EVP_MD_CTX_size() return the size of the message
digest when passed an EVP_MD or an EVP_MD_CTX structure, i.e. the size
of the hash.

EVP_MD_block_size() and EVP_MD_CTX_block_size() return the block size
of the message digest when passed an EVP_MD or an EVP_MD_CTX structure.

EVP_MD_type() and EVP_MD_CTX_type() return the NID of the OBJECT IDEN-
TIFIER representing the given message digest when passed an EVP_MD
structure. For example EVP_MD_type(EVP_sha1()) returns NID_sha1. This
function is normally used when setting ASN1 OIDs.

EVP_MD_CTX_md() returns the EVP_MD structure corresponding to the
passed EVP_MD_CTX.

EVP_MD_pkey_type() returns the NID of the public key signing algorithm
associated with this digest. For example EVP_sha1() is associated with
RSA so this will return NID_sha1WithRSAEncryption. This « link » between
digests and signature algorithms may not be retained in future versions
of OpenSSL.

EVP_md2(), EVP_md5(), EVP_sha(), EVP_sha1(), EVP_mdc2() and
EVP_ripemd160() return EVP_MD structures for the MD2, MD5, SHA, SHA1,
MDC2 and RIPEMD160 digest algorithms respectively. The associated sig-
nature algorithm is RSA in each case.

EVP_dss() and EVP_dss1() return EVP_MD structures for SHA and SHA1
digest algorithms but using DSS (DSA) for the signature algorithm.

EVP_md_null() is a « null » message digest that does nothing: i.e. the
hash it returns is of zero length.

EVP_get_digestbyname(), EVP_get_digestbynid() and EVP_get_digestbyobj()
return an EVP_MD structure when passed a digest name, a digest NID or
an ASN1_OBJECT structure respectively. The digest table must be ini-
tialized using, for example, OpenSSL_add_all_digests() for these func-
tions to work.


EVP_DigestInit_ex(), EVP_DigestUpdate() and EVP_DigestFinal_ex() return
1 for success and 0 for failure.

EVP_MD_CTX_copy_ex() returns 1 if successful or 0 for failure.

EVP_MD_type(), EVP_MD_pkey_type() and EVP_MD_type() return the NID of
the corresponding OBJECT IDENTIFIER or NID_undef if none exists.

EVP_MD_size(), EVP_MD_block_size(), EVP_MD_CTX_size(e), EVP_MD_size(),
EVP_MD_CTX_block_size() and EVP_MD_block_size() return the digest or
block size in bytes.

EVP_md_null(), EVP_md2(), EVP_md5(), EVP_sha(), EVP_sha1(), EVP_dss(),
EVP_dss1(), EVP_mdc2() and EVP_ripemd160() return pointers to the cor-
responding EVP_MD structures.

EVP_get_digestbyname(), EVP_get_digestbynid() and EVP_get_digestbyobj()
return either an EVP_MD structure or NULL if an error occurs.


The EVP interface to message digests should almost always be used in
preference to the low level interfaces. This is because the code then
becomes transparent to the digest used and much more flexible.

SHA1 is the digest of choice for new applications. The other digest
algorithms are still in common use.

For most applications the impl parameter to EVP_DigestInit_ex() will be
set to NULL to use the default digest implementation.

The functions EVP_DigestInit(), EVP_DigestFinal() and EVP_MD_CTX_copy()
are obsolete but are retained to maintain compatibility with existing
code. New applications should use EVP_DigestInit_ex(), EVP_DigestFi-
nal_ex() and EVP_MD_CTX_copy_ex() because they can efficiently reuse a
digest context instead of initializing and cleaning it up on each call
and allow non default implementations of digests to be specified.

In OpenSSL 0.9.7 and later if digest contexts are not cleaned up after
use memory leaks will occur.


This example digests the data « Test Message\n » and « Hello World\n »,
using the digest name passed on the command line.

#include (stdio .h)
#include (openssl/evp.h)

main(int argc, char *argv[])
EVP_MD_CTX mdctx;
const EVP_MD *md;
char mess1[] = « Test Message\n »;
char mess2[] = « Hello World\n »;
unsigned char md_value[EVP_MAX_MD_SIZE];
int md_len, i;


if(!argv[1]) {
printf(« Usage: mdtest digestname\n »);

md = EVP_get_digestbyname(argv[1]);

if(!md) {
printf(« Unknown message digest %s\n », argv[1]);

EVP_DigestInit_ex(&mdctx, md, NULL);
EVP_DigestUpdate(&mdctx, mess1, strlen(mess1));
EVP_DigestUpdate(&mdctx, mess2, strlen(mess2));
EVP_DigestFinal_ex(&mdctx, md_value, &md_len);

printf(« Digest is: « );
for(i = 0; i < md_len; i++) printf("%02x", md_value[i]); printf("\n"); }BUGSThe link between digests and signing algorithms results in a situation where EVP_sha1() must be used with RSA and EVP_dss1() must be used with DSS even though they are identical digests.EOF

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evp – high-level cryptographic functions


#include (openssl/evp.h)


The EVP library provides a high-level interface to cryptographic func-

EVP_Seal… and EVP_Open… provide public key encryption and decryp-
tion to implement digital « envelopes ».

The EVP_Sign… and EVP_Verify… functions implement digital signa-

Symmetric encryption is available with the EVP_Encrypt… functions.
The EVP_Digest… functions provide message digests.

Algorithms are loaded with OpenSSL_add_all_algorithms(3).

All the symmetric algorithms (ciphers) and digests can be replaced by
ENGINE modules providing alternative implementations. If ENGINE imple-
mentations of ciphers or digests are registered as defaults, then the
various EVP functions will automatically use those implementations
automatically in preference to built in software implementations. For
more information, consult the engine(3) man page.


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dynamic_pager — dynamic pager external storage manager


dynamic_pager [-E] [-F filename] [-S filesize] [-H high-water-trigger]
[-L low-water-trigger] [-P priority]


The dynamic_pager daemon manages a pool of external swap files which the
kernel uses to support demand paging. This pool is expanded with new
swap files as load on the system increases, and contracted when the swap-
ping resources are no longer needed. The dynamic_pager daemon also pro-
vides a notification service for those applications which wish to receive
notices when the external paging pool expands or contracts.


-E Encrypt the data in the swap files.

-F The base name of the filename to use for the external paging
files. By default this is /private/var/vm/swapfile.

-S The fixed filesize [in bytes] to use for the paging files. By
default dynamic_pager uses variable sized paging files, using
larger sized files as paging demands increase. The -S, -H and -L
options disable that default and cause dynamic_pager to use a
series of fixed sized external paging files.

-H If there are less than high-water-trigger bytes free in the
external paging files, the kernel will signal dynamic_pager to
add a new external paging file.

-L If there are more than low-water-trigger bytes free in the exter-
nal paging files, the kernel will coalese in-use pages and signal
dynamic_pager to discard an external paging file.
Low-water-trigger must be greater than high-water-trigger +

-P This option is currently unimplemented.


/private/var/vm/swapfile* Default external paging files.


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distnoted — distributed notification server




distnoted provides distributed notifications services.

There are no configuration options to distnoted. Users should not run
distnoted manually.


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diskarbitrationd — disk arbitration daemon


diskarbitrationd [-d]


diskarbitrationd listens for connections from clients, notifies clients
of the appearance of disks and filesystems, and governs the mounting of
filesystems and the claiming of disks amongst clients.

diskarbitrationd is accessed via the Disk Arbitration framework.


-d Report detailed information in /var/log/diskarbitrationd.log.
This option forces diskarbitrationd to run in the foreground.

The file /etc/fstab is consulted for user-defined mount points, indexed
by filesystem, in the mount point determination for a filesystem. Each
filesystem can be identified by its UUID or by its label, using the con-
structs « UUID » or « LABEL », respectively. For example:

UUID=DF000C7E-AE0C-3B15-B730-DFD2EF15CB91 /export ufs ro
UUID=FAB060E9-79F7-33FF-BE85-E1D3ABD3EDEA none hfs rw,noauto
LABEL=The\040Volume\040Name\040Is\040This none msdos ro




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cupsd.conf – server configuration file for cups


The cupsd.conf file configures the CUPS scheduler, cupsd(8). It is
normally located in the /etc/cups directory.

Each line in the file can be a configuration directive, a blank line,
or a comment. Comment lines start with the # character. The configura-
tion directives are intentionally similar to those used by the popular
Apache web server software and are described below.


The following directives are understood by cupsd. Consult the CUPS
Software Administrators Manual for a detailed description:

Defines the access log filename.

Allows access from the named hosts or addresses.

Specifies the authentication class (User, Group, System)

Specifies the authentication group.

Specifies the authentication type (None, Basic, Digest)

Specifies whether to purge job history data automatically when it
is no longer required for quotas.

Specifies a broadcast address for outgoing printer information

Allows incoming printer information packets from the named host or

Denies incoming printer information packets from the named host or

Specifies the maximum interval between printer information broad-

Specifies the order of printer information access control
(allow,deny or deny,allow)

Specifies a server to poll for printer information.

Specifies the port to listen to for printer information packets.

Specifies the protocols to use for printer registration and dis-
covery. Using BrowseProtocols sets the BrowseLocalProtocols and
BrowseRemoteProtocols directives to the specified value.

Specifies the protocols to use for the sending or registration of
local printers.

Specifies the protocols to use for printer discovery of remote

Specifies that printer information packets should be relayed from
one host or network to another.

Specifies whether remote printers will use short names (« printer »)
or not (« printer@server »). This option is ignored if more than one
remote printer exists with the same name.

Specifies the maximum interval between printer information updates
before remote printers will be removed from the list of available

Specifies whether or not remote printer browsing should be

Specifies the security classification of the server.

Specifies whether to allow users to override the classification of
individual print jobs.

Specifies the permissions for all configuration files that the
scheduler writes.

Specified the directory where data files can be found.

Specifies the default character set to use for text.

Specifies the default language to use for text and web content.

Denies access to the named host or address.

Specifies the root directory for the internal web server docu-

Specifies the level of encryption that is required for a particu-
lar location.

Specifies the error log filename.

Specifies the interval between retries of fax jobs in seconds.

Specifies the number of retries that are done for fax jobs.

Specifies whether the file pseudo-device can be used for new
printer queues.

Specifies the maximum cost of filters that are run concurrently.

Specifies the scheduling priority (« nice » value) of filters that
are run to print a job.

Specifies the search path for fonts.

Specifies the group name or ID that will be used when executing
external programs.

Specifies whether to hide members of implicit classes.

Specifies whether or not to do reverse lookups on client

Specifies whether or not to create implicit classes for local and
remote printers, e.g. « AnyPrinter » from « Printer »,
« Printer@server1 », and « Printer@server2 ».

Specifies whether or not to create implicit classes from identical
remote printers.

Includes the named file.

Specifies whether or not to support HTTP Keep-Alive.

Specifies the connection timeout for HTTP Keep-Alive.

Specifies the HTTP methods that are being limited inside a loca-

Specifies the maximum size of any print job request.

Listens to the specified address and port.

Specifies access control for the named location.

Specifies the permissions for all log files that the scheduler

Specifies the logging level (none, warn, error, info, debug, or

Specifies the maximum number of simultaneous clients to support.

Specifies the maximum number of simultaneous clients to support
from a single address.

Specifies the maximum number of copies that a user can print of
each job.

Specifies the maximum number of simultaneous jobs to support.

Specifies the maximum number of simultaneous jobs per printer to

Specifies the maximum number of simultaneous jobs per user to sup-

Specifies the maximum size of the log files before they are
rotated (0 to disable rotation)

Specifies the maximum request/file size in bytes (0 for no limit)

Specifies the order of HTTP access control (allow,deny or

Specifies the page log filename.

Specifies a port number to listen to for HTTP requests.

Specifies whether or not to preserve job files after they are

Specifies whether or not to preserve the job history after they
are printed.

Specifies the filename for a printcap file that is updated auto-
matically with a list of available printers (needed for legacy

Specifies the format of the printcap file.

Specifies whether to generate option panel definition files on
some operating systems.

Specifies the username that is associated with unauthenticated
root accesses.

Specifies the directory to store print jobs and other HTTP request

Specifies that user or group authentication is required.

Specifies the maximum amount of memory to use when converting
images and PostScript files to bitmaps for a printer.

Specifies that the scheduler should run as the unpriviledged user
set with the User directive.

Specifies whether all or any limits set for a Location must be
satisfied to allow access.

Specifies the email address of the server administrator.

Specifies the directory where backends, CGIs, daemons, and filters
may be found.

Specifies the encryption certificate to use.

Specifies the encryption key to use.

Specifies the fully-qualified hostname of the server.

Specifies the directory where the server configuration files can
be found.

Listens on the specified address and port for encrypted connec-

Listens on the specified port for encrypted connections.

Specifies the group to use for System class authentication.

Specifies the directory where temporary files are stored.

Specifies the HTTP request timeout in seconds.

Specifies the user name or ID that is used when running external


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crypt, setkey, encrypt, des_setkey, des_cipher, — DES encryption



*crypt(const char *key, const char *setting);

setkey(char *key);

encrypt(char *block, int flag);

des_setkey(const char *key);

des_cipher(const char *in, char *out, long salt, int count);


The crypt() function performs password encryption, based on the NBS Data
Encryption Standard (DES). Additional code has been added to deter key
search attempts. The first argument to crypt() is a null-terminated
string, typically a user’s typed password. The second is in one of two
forms: if it begins with an underscore (« _ ») then an extended format is
used in interpreting both the key and the setting, as outlined below.

Extended crypt:

The key is divided into groups of 8 characters (the last group is null-
padded) and the low-order 7 bits of each each character (56 bits per
group) are used to form the DES key as follows: the first group of 56
bits becomes the initial DES key. For each additional group, the XOR of
the encryption of the current DES key with itself and the group bits
becomes the next DES key.

The setting is a 9-character array consisting of an underscore followed
by 4 bytes of iteration count and 4 bytes of salt. These are encoded as
printable characters, 6 bits per character, least significant character
first. The values 0 to 63 are encoded as « ./0-9A-Za-z ». This allows
24 bits for both count and salt.

Traditional crypt:

The first 8 bytes of the key are null-padded, and the low-order 7 bits of
each character is used to form the 56-bit DES key.

The setting is a 2-character array of the ASCII-encoded salt. Thus only
12 bits of salt are used. count is set to 25.


The salt introduces disorder in the DES algorithm in one of 16777216 or
4096 possible ways (ie. with 24 or 12 bits: if bit i of the salt is set,
then bits i and i+24 are swapped in the DES E-box output).

The DES key is used to encrypt a 64-bit constant using count iterations
of DES. The value returned is a null-terminated string, 20 or 13 bytes
(plus null) in length, consisting of the setting followed by the encoded
64-bit encryption.

The functions, encrypt(), setkey(), des_setkey() and des_cipher() provide
access to the DES algorithm itself. setkey() is passed a 64-byte array
of binary values (numeric 0 or 1). A 56-bit key is extracted from this
array by dividing the array into groups of 8, and ignoring the last bit
in each group. That bit is reserved for a byte parity check by DES, but
is ignored by these functions.

The block argument to encrypt() is also a 64-byte array of binary values.
If the value of flag is 0, block is encrypted otherwise it is decrypted.
The result is returned in the original array block after using the key
specified by setkey() to process it.

The argument to des_setkey() is a character array of length 8. The least
significant bit (the parity bit) in each character is ignored, and the
remaining bits are concatenated to form a 56-bit key. The function
des_cipher() encrypts (or decrypts if count is negative) the 64-bits
stored in the 8 characters at in using abs(3) of count iterations of DES
and stores the 64-bit result in the 8 characters at out (which may be the
same as in ). The salt specifies perturbations to the DES E-box output
as described above.

The function crypt() returns a pointer to the encrypted value on success,
and NULL on failure. The functions setkey(), encrypt(), des_setkey(),
and des_cipher() return 0 on success and 1 on failure.

The crypt(), setkey() and des_setkey() functions all manipulate the same
key space.


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configd — System Configuration Daemon


configd [-bdv] [-B bundleID] [-V bundleID] [-t bundle-path]


The configd daemon is responsible for many configuration aspects of the
local system. configd maintains data reflecting the desired and current
state of the system, provides notifications to applications when this
data changes, and hosts a number of configuration agents in the form of
loadable bundles.

Each configuration agent is responsible for a well-defined aspect of con-
figuration management. The agents look to one or more input sources
(preferences, low-level kernel events, configd notifications, etc) and,
through a set of policy modules, interacts with the system to establish
the desired operational configuration.

Access to the data maintained by configd is via the SystemConfigura-
tion.framework SCDynamicStore APIs.


The command line options are as follows:

-b Don’t actually load any bundles.
-B bundleID Prevents the loading of the bundle with the specified bundleID.
-d Run configd in the foreground without forking. This is useful for debugging.
-v Puts configd into verbose mode. Displays debugging information about bundles as they are being loaded.
-V bundleID Turns verbose mode on for the bundle with the specified bundleID.
-t bundle-path Loads only the bundle specified by bundle-path.


At the present time, the majority of the configuration agents (or bun-
dles) hosted by configd are used to establish and maintain the network
configuration. These agents include:


This bundle is responsible for establishing and maintaining the AppleTalk
network configuration on the system.


This bundle is responsible for monitoring kernel events and conveying
changes to the network state (e.g. link status) to other configuration
agents and interested applications.


This bundle provides a name to each of the system’s network interfaces.
The bundle queries the IOKit Registry for a list of network devices
attached to the system and gives them BSD style names such as « en0 ».


This agent is responsible for establishing and maintaining IPv4 addresses
on the system. These addresses may be manually specified in the network
preferences or acquired using DHCP (or BOOTP).


This agent is responsible for establishing and maintaining IPv6 addresses
on the system.


This agent is responsible for establishing and maintaining the primary
network service, the default route, the active DNS configuration, and the
active network proxies on the system.


This agent is responsible for establishing and maintaining the media
type, media options, and MTU for ethernet interfaces.


This agent is responsible for conveying the network configuration prefer-
ences specified by the administrator to the various configuration agents
(AppleTalk, IPv4, IPv6, …).


This agent is responsible for establishing and maintaining PPP connec-
tions on the system.


/System/Library/SystemConfiguration/Directory of configd bundles
/Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/Default directory for system configuration persistent store files.
…/preferences.plist System configuration
…/NetworkInterfaces.plist Network interface –> BSD interface mappings
…/VirtualNetworkInterfaces.plist Virtual network interface (VLAN) configuration


Log messages generated by configd and any configuration agents will are
sent to the system log daemon by syslog(3). The syslog facility used is
LOG_DAEMON. If the -d option is specified, log messages with written to
stdout (or stderr if the priority is greater than LOG_NOTICE).


configd was designed to run without any intervention but if you insist on
sending a signal to the daemon then the following are available:

SIGHUP This signal, typically used to tell a daemon to reload it’s con-
figuration, is ignored (there is no configuration).

SIGTERM This signal initiates a « graceful » shutdown of the daemon.


scutil(8), scselect(8)


The configd daemon appeared in Mac OS X Public Beta.


Unless started with the -d option, configd will register with
mach_init(8) such that the daemon will be restarted in the event of a
crash. This registration will be removed during « graceful » shutdowns of
the daemon.

This daemon and its current behavior may change without notice. Do not
rely on its existence or its behavior. Consider it an unsupported com-


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cksum – checksum and count the bytes in a file


cksum [–help] [–version] [file…]


This manual page documents the GNU version of cksum.
cksum computes a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) for each
named file, or the standard input if none are given or
when a file named `-‘ is given. It prints the CRC for
each file along with the number of bytes in the file, and
the file name unless no arguments were given.

cksum is typically used to make sure that files have been
transferred by unreliable means (such as netnews) have not
been corrupted, by comparing the cksum output for the
received files with the cksum output for the original
files. The CRC algorithm is specified by the POSIX.2
standard. It is not compatible with the BSD or System V
sum programs; it is more robust.

–help Print a usage message and exit with a status code
indicating success.

Print version information on standard output then


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charset – Set an ACM for use in one of the G0/G1 charset


charset [-v] G0|G1 [cp437|iso01|vt100|user|]


The linux console has 2 slots for charsets, labeled G0 and
G1. charset changes the slot in use by the current VT to
either G0 or G1, and fills the slot either with one of the
3 predefined ACMs (cp437, iso01, vt100) or with a user-
defined ACM.

You can ask for the current user-defined ACM by specifying
user, or ask a new ACM to be loaded from a file into the
user slot, by specifying a filename.

You will note that, although each VT has its own slot set-
tings, there is only one user-defined ACM for all the VTs.
That is, whereas you can have tty1 using G0=cp437 and
G1=vt100, at the same time as tty2 using G0=iso01 and
G1=iso02 (user-defined), you cannot have at the same time
tty1 using iso02 and tty2 using iso03. This is a limita-
tion of the linux kernel.

Note that you can emulate such a setting using the fil-
term(1) utility, with your console in UTF8-mode, by
telling filterm to translate screen output on-the-fly to

You’ll find filterm(1) in the konwert(1) package, by
Marcin Kowalczyk, which is available from


-v be verbose. charset will then print what it does
as it does it.


charset cannot determine which of the 2 slots is in use at
a given time, so you have to tell him which one you want,
even if you don’t want to change to the other one. This
is a limitation of the console driver.


consolechars(8), unicode_start(1), filterm(1).


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